夏天 南極半島: 最低零下十度
夏天 南極半島: 最低零下十度
所以我就犧牲了攝影器材== ==) (我體重也才40公斤...行李太重了>0<)
所以我就犧牲了攝影器材== ==) (我體重也才40公斤...行李太重了>0<)
因為...因為...南極整個地上的都是大便 == ==
我自己的D5D怪怪的,點測雪地 +1~1.3EV都不準 (時暗時亮)
Cold weather photography presents numerous challenges to photographers and their equipment. From drained batteries to frostbit fingers, cold weather photography is a completely different prospect than hot weather shooting. While there are some simple solutions to most cold weather photography problems, these solutions may not be the ones you would first think about.
- What is Condensation?Condensation is a photographer's nightmare. Just like a pair of eyeglasses fogging up when changing temperatures rapidly, a camera lens (and the inside of the camera) can fog up with condensation. Condensation is water forming on surfaces that are significantly colder or warmer than the air surrounding it. Technically, this means that if your camera goes into an area where the air is warm condensation will form if the camera is colder than the dew point. The opposite is also true. If your camera goes into a cold air area and the camera is warmer than the dew point then condensation can form.
- How to Avoid Condensation?The basic way to avoid condensation is to gradually bring your camera through these extreme temperature changes by sealing it inside a bag containing air the same temperature as the camera is acclimatized to. This way, any condensation forms on the bag instead of the camera as the air and camera gradually equalize to the new environment. In practice, this usually results in the photographer freezing in his/her car because he/she doesn't want to wait for the camera to cool off when he/she gets to the photo location.
- Hidden Condensation CauseAnother source of condensation is the photographer. If you breathe on your camera you risk fogging it. The heat from your eye could also cause problems on the viewfinder. If your viewfinder fogs due to photographer body heat it is almost always only an inconvenience that does not affect the rest of the camera. You should, however, refrain from putting your camera in your coat as this could raise the temperature of the camera and lens itself enough to create problematic condensation.
Remember that condensation can form inside the camera as well. Beyond the moisture not agreeing with any electronic parts, the moisture could freeze in very cold conditions and completely ruin the camera.
Batteries lose their charge more quickly in cold weather. When shooting in cold weather it is essential to carry spare batteries for all of your equipment. Lithium batteries are a good choice as they are better at holding a charge than the older chemical compositions to begin with. You can also keep the spare batteries in your coat pocket or other relatively warm spot. However, be extremely careful not to let the batteries be too warm as this could cause condensation when they are placed back into the cold equipment.
- What is in Danger?We all know to wear a coat when we go outside in the cold, but we often forget about our hands and faces. For your face, consider a ski mask to reduce the amount of skin exposed to the wind and cold. This can also help reduce the amount of water vapor you breathe onto your camera. A photographer's fingers and face are the most endangered in cold weather shooting. Often a photographer will take off his/her gloves while shooting in order to better handle the camera. This exposes your fingers not only to the cold but also the wind. Even if the ambient air temperature is not below freezing, the wind chill may be cold enough to cause frostbite.
- Protecting Your FingersFingers cause a bit more problems for photographers. Fear of dropping the camera and difficulty in managing the controls with heavy gloves often leads photographers to forgo gloves altogether. This leads to quickly numb fingers and is a fast track to frostbite. Depending on how cold the conditions are, you may even be at risk for your fingers freezing to the metal on the camera. Layering your gloves is an excellent solution to frozen fingers. Wear silk or other fine mesh gloves first (even women's nylons with a few extra seams make great first layer gloves). Over these gloves add a pair of fingerless crafter's gloves. These not only add warmth, but can also help cut down on hand fatigue. The final layer are your normal cold-weather heavy gloves. These will be removed whenever you are shooting so a cord to hang them around your neck is needed to prevent losing them. Your fingers will still get cold with the crafter's gloves and under gloves (but more slowly). Try keeping a hunter's chemical heat pack in your coat pocket for quick reheating of your hands in between frames.
Even when wearing very well insulated boots, your feet can become damp from perspiration or a poorly placed step that puts you in snow higher than your boot tops. Wet skin is in major danger of damage from cold. Keep extra socks with you at all times for emergency changes. Keeping a couple of kitchen dish towels with you will also allow you to dry off your feet before changing socks.
In cold conditions, almost any surface can be covered in ice. Photographers are notorious for not paying attention to their surroundings while they are focusing on a subject. Be sure to pay attention to where you are stepping and wear footgear with good traction in order to avoid a nasty fall.
|Author Jack Jackson|
Much is written in magazines about cold weather photography but the advice is often inaccurate, given by journalists or photographers who have never really experienced really cold conditions! Here Jack Jackson offers advice from real world experience.
Simple point and shoot cameras and cheaper SLR cameras will be unreliable in really cold conditions and due to the reduced performance of batteries it is best to use mechanical cameras rather than electronic ones. Modern cameras do not require winterization with thinner lubricants for cold conditions but do get them serviced before you go.
Where batteries are used, Silver Oxide is best where button cells are required and Nickel Cadmium or Lithium batteries are best for heavier use, always carry several extra spares, kept in a warm pocket.
Modern electronics or LED displays often fail until the camera warms up again, then you may have to remove batteries from the camera and then replace them again to reset the electronics.
Many quality camera manufacturers supply remote pocketable battery packs with fragile connecting wires to the camera. These are fine in the rare situations where you can use a tripod but are useless in active situations, if you must use them, tape them to your arm inside the sleeve on the hand that always supports the camera.
At temperatures below zero Celsius, avoid touching metal camera parts with bare skin, it can stick to the metal and be torn off, be especially careful of your face. Some photographers' place stick-on tape over the metal parts that may come into contact with their faces.
Wear silk or nylon inner-gloves inside your main gloves for use when handling cameras. Keep your main gloves attached by tape around your neck to avoid losing them while handling the cameras or to hungry sledge dogs.
Do not keep cameras under your coat when they are likely to be needed for use. If you do, when you bring a camera out, perspiration from your body will freeze on the lens and viewfinder making them unusable. Even if kept in a waterproof bag under the coat, the camera will be considerably warmer than the surrounding air so unless the humidity is zero there will be problems with condensation. Unseen condensation inside the camera can also freeze on the shutter gearing, giving slower than chosen shutter speeds or jamming it partially open.
Hold your breath when holding the camera to your eye, exhaled breath can freeze over the eyepiece.
Most exposure meters give incorrect readings on snow, particularly if you want the correct exposure for any people in the scene, in this situation either use an incident light meter or take a close reading from near-grey coloured clothing. If this is not possible, overexpose readings taken from the snow. For faces, use a spot-meter reading directly from the face.
Pure snow and ice scenes are best photographed with side lighting and slightly underexposed. Snow is a good test for the quality of your skylight filter, cheaper versions produce a pink cast.
Keep a filter over the lens and have a chamois leather handy for drying the filter in snow or spray, be extra vigilant for filters, eyepieces and screws working loose and falling off.
Wind will have an extra cooling effect, to avoid both this and problems with condensation, cameras can be kept ready for use in padded camera bags or pouches. For extreme terrain and pack animals use indestructible, 'O' ring sealed plastic cases with padding.
Never enter a warmer building or a tent without first placing your camera equipment into a sealed case or polythene bag, if you do not, your equipment will soon be covered in condensation. When inside, give the equipment time to reach the new ambient temperature before taking it out to clean it or change film.
If there are rats, a common occurrence in fishing or mountain huts, shut your synchronization cables away as they like to nibble at them.
Due to having less layers of emulsion, Kodachrome film is thinner and more flexible than E6 process film and therefore less likely to tear during wind-on when cold. However, in extreme cold there is still the chance of getting streaks on the film due to the discharge of static electricity so wind and rewind film slowly, it is best not to use a motor wind.
Modern western clothing is considerably more efficient at keeping you warm than any Eskimo, animal-skin clothing. This is particularly true of footwear where double-layer, hunting boots are much cheaper than double-layer climbing boots. It is most important to have dry socks and dry inner layers for your boots, either carry spares and change them every day or dry them out by keeping them next to your body in your sleeping bag overnight. A warm four-season sleeping bag is essential, tiredness from lack of sleep is a prime cause of accidents. Do not forget to wear warm headwear, as a cold brain will imperceptibly cease to function.
ETIQUETTE Apart from asking permission before photographing local people, if you return to an Eskimo or any Third World community carrying prints of people taken on a previous visit, make sure that those shown in the pictures are still alive before passing them around. In the Third World most people die young, often from accidents.
About the author
Mountaineer, diver, photographer, lecturer and author, JACK JACKSON has travelled the remoter areas of Asia, Africa, Europe and the Far East since 1967. Regularly photographing in extreme conditions from the heat of the Sahara Desert to the cold of the Arctic and from high mountains in the Himalayas to the depths of the sea where he specializes in shark photography. Nikon Cameras (UK) staged an exhibition of his underwater photography in 1989.
Author of 14 books, Jack has won several photographic awards and two book awards. He is a Fellow of the Royal Photographic Society, a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, a member of the Alpine Club, the Climbers' Club and the Scientific Exploration Society and is a consultant to the Expedition Advisory Centre.